Living Healthy


JBA GlucoTrojan® White Paper

The power of mitigating blood sugar spikes in enhancing our health

By Guillermo Daniel Repizo, PHD; Shin Jie Yong; Le Quang Huan, PHD 

October 21, 2023 


Researchers have recently coined the term “diabesity,” the combined diabetes and obesity  epidemics for what they think it could be the greatest health crisis in human history. Indeed,  our modern diet, abundant in carbohydrates and sugars, often causes surges in blood glucose  levels that could spiral into a vicious cycle of increased insulin production and insulin  resistance. Excess insulin promotes unnecessary fat storage, thus leading to obesity, whereas  insulin resistance impairs glucose uptake, paving the way for diabetes.  

This escalating health crisis has propelled the innovation of GlucoTrojan®, a synergistic blend  of white mulberry leaf, mango leaf, and banana stem juice extracts. Designed with scientific  precision, GlucoTrojan® helps optimize glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity via a  simple mechanism: mitigating excessive spikes in postprandial (after meals) blood glucose  levels.  

Scientific data, including randomized clinical trials and our real-world observational study led  by Tastermonial, have consistently demonstrated the efficacy of GlucoTrojan® components in  improving postprandial blood sugar levels and insulin response. A well-regulated blood glucose  response promotes satiety, prevents cravings, enhances cellular energy metabolism, and  consequently delays aging. GlucoTrojan® is, therefore, a promising supplement for those with  prediabetes and those seeking to improve their health and well-being. 

The Greatest Health Crisis in Human History 

There has never been an easier time to secure food than today, particularly the rich, calorie laden foods our ancestors would have deemed precious gold. With our survival instincts  remaining largely intact, it is no surprise we have an epidemic of “diabesity,” a sinister fusion  of type 2 diabetes and obesity [1]. About 11% and 42% of the U.S. population suffers from 

diabetes and obesity, respectively, in 2022 [2, 3]. Several studies support the hypothesis that  diabesity is the largest epidemic and health crisis in human history [1]. Are we ready to face it?  

Before diving into promising solutions, we must first understand what drives the diabesity  epidemic. While genetics play a significant role in our predispositions, lifestyle factors (e.g.,  physical inactivity and poor nutrition) remain the leading drivers [4]. Regarding nutrition,  reports indicate that excess sugars top the list of causes of diabetes and obesity, due to the direct  influence of sugars on insulin levels [5].  

Diabetes and obesity are diseases fundamentally caused by insulin resistance, a state in which  cells become unresponsive to insulin (i.e., a hormone that enables cells to absorb glucose, with  the surplus being converted to fat). To overcome this resistance, the pancreas ramps up insulin  production. However, excess insulin induces fat storage and then obesity, whereas the  persistently high blood sugar levels, due to ineffective glucose uptake, promotes diabetes (Fig  1) [6]. An additional 7.3% of the general population is estimated to have insulin resistance [7].  

Importantly, insulin resistance does not immediately cause diabetes and obesity. It unfolds  progressively, with cells becoming incrementally more resistant to insulin and prone to storing  fat, largely driven by the excess sugar in our modern diet [8]. If we address the root cause of  insulin resistance – excess sugar – we can chart a course toward a healthier life-style.  

Figure 1. A simplified scheme of how insulin resistance typically develops.

JBA GlucoTrojan®: A Solution to Healthier Glucose Metabolism  

Let us introduce JBA GlucoTrojan®, an innovative powdered supplement with the main active  ingredient being white mulberry leaf extract. Interestingly, mulberry leaf contains iminosugars,  whose molecular structure is similar to common sugars, but with the special property that they  can influence enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.  

For instance, a key iminosugar, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is a potent inhibitor of α glucosidase enzymes that aid carbohydrate assimilation in the gut [9]. DNJ, thus, mitigates  glucose absorption in the intestine and accelerates liver metabolism of sugar to increase energy  expenditure [10]. In short, DNJ propels the body into fat-burning mode by consuming more  energy.  

Rigorous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) across multiple countries have demonstrated that  mulberry extract, rich in DNJ, is safe and efficacious in reducing postprandial (post-meal)  blood sugar and insulin levels compared to control in healthy individuals and even individuals  with insulin resistance, obesity, or diabetes (Table 1). In medicine, RCTs are considered the  gold-standard method for determining the efficacy of certain interventions.  

Table 1. Randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of DNJ-containing mulberry  extract (ME) in controlling blood sugar and insulin responses. 

Study  Sample Intervention  Main outcomes
Mudra et al.  

(2007), U.S.  


10 patients with  

diabetes: aged 59-74.

1000 mg of ME  containing DNJ  vs. placebo ↓ blood glucose levels  over 120 min after  

drinking sucrose solution.

Asai et al.  

(2011), Japan  [12]

10 participants with  prediabetes: mean age  of 50; 80% men.  6-9 mg of DNJ vs.  placebo  ↓ blood glucose levels at  30 min after eating white  rice.
65 participants with  prediabetes: mean age  of 53; 66% men. 6 mg of DNJ vs.  placebo ↑ blood 1,5AG level  

(glycemic control  

biomarker) when  

consumed with meals  over 12 weeks. 

Lown et al.  

(2017), U.K.  


37 healthy  

participants: mean age  of 29; 32.4% men.

250-500 mg of  

ME containing 5%  DNJ vs. placebo

↓ blood glucose and  

insulin levels over 120  min after drinking  

maltodextrin solution.

Riche et al.  

(2017), U.S.  


24 patients with  

diabetes: mean age of  57; 42% men.

1000 mg of ME  containing DNJ  vs. placebo ↓ blood glucose levels  when consumed with  meals over 12 weeks.
Wang et al.  

(2018), China  [15]

15 healthy  

participants: mean age  of 24; 60% men. 

750 mg of ME  

containing 1%  

DNJ vs. no extract

↓ blood glucose levels at  30 min after drinking  water containing sucrose,  maltose, and  


Thaipitakwong a et al. (2019),  Thailand [16] 85 individuals with  obesity: mean age of  24; 20% men.  4600 mg of ME  containing 0.25%  of DNJ vs. no  


↓ blood glucose and  

HbA1c levels when  

consumed with meals  over 12 weeks. 

Thondre et al.  (2021), U.K.  


38 healthy  

participants: mean age  of 32; 42% men.

250 mg of ME  

containing 5%  

DNJ vs. placebo

↓ blood glucose and  

insulin levels over 120  min after drinking sucrose  solution.

Gheldof et al.  (2022),  



30 healthy  

individuals: mean age  of 31; 63% men.

250mg of ME  

containing 5%  

DNJ vs. no extract

↓ blood glucose levels at  2 hours after meal. 

Abbreviations: 1,5AG, 1,5-anhydroglucitol; DNJ, 1-deoxynojirimycin; HbA1c, glycated  hemoglobin; ME, mulberry extract.  

RCTs, however, often recruit participants with similar characteristics (e.g., age, sex, and health  status) to maximize the replicability of results. Therefore, real-world observational studies are  also needed to extrapolate results derived from the strict laboratory settings of RCTs to the  highly diverse general population [19].  

Tastermonial Inc, a company specialized in real-world data obtention, conducted a study which  provided further scientific evidence on the health benefits of GlucoTrojan® in 25 healthy  individuals with prediabetes. A state of prediabetes indicates sub-clinical insulin resistance,  which may develop into clinical diabetes if left unattended [20]. Our eligibility criteria ranged  from slim to obese (BMI of 18.5 to 29.9) and young to old (21-75 years) individuals, ensuring  a broad representation of the general population.  

Our study showed that consuming rice with GlucoTrojan® significantly lowered the  postprandial blood sugar levels by 26 ± 11 mg/dl compared to consuming rice only (P < .0005).  A case example is shown in Fig 2: rice consumption alone spiked the blood glucose levels by  61 mg/dl, which remained elevated even after 2 hours , indicating impaired insulin sensitivity.  Consuming rice with GlucoTrojan®, however, mitigated this surge by 21 mg/dl, allowing the  blood glucose levels to return to baseline faster (Fig 2).

We also found that GlucoTrojan® reduced the iAUC (incremental area under the curve) by  1166 ± 610, equivalent to a 31% decrease in the rice’s glycemic index. iAUC is the gold standard method for measuring glycemic index, a measure of how fast carbohydrates elevate  blood sugar levels. Foods with lower glycemic index undergo slower digestion and absorption  processes, allowing better control of blood glucose and insulin response [21]. Importantly, such  benefits of GlucoTrojan® were observed in 84-88% of the participants (Fig 3).  

Overall, GlucoTrojan® offers a safe and convenient way to optimize glucose metabolism in  individuals who seek to improve their health and well-being. Consumers of GlucoTrojan® can  expect a less drastic spike in blood glucose and insulin levels after meals, promoting increased  satiety, enhanced insulin responsiveness, and more efficient cellular energy utilization. 

Figure 2. A case example of a participant consuming rice with and without GlucoTrojan® in  our study at Tastermonial.

Figure 3. Peak glucose concentration (mg/dl) and iAUC value of healthy individuals with  prediabetes after consuming rice with versus without GlucoTrojan®.  

GlucoTrojan®: More Than Just Improved Blood Glucose Response

Besides mulberry extract, GlucoTrojan® formulation also contains Mangifera indica (mango)  

leaf extract and banana stem juice extract, which benefit consumers’ health as well.  

Mango leaves are rich in phytochemicals (e.g., mangiferin, phenolic acids, and carotenoids)  and have been widely studied for their various health benefits, such as neuroprotective,  cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic effects [22, 23]. For instance, mangiferin and mango leaf  extract have been found to strengthen neural connections in the brain and enhance cognitive  function in healthy individuals in RCT [24]. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant  effects of mangiferin have been shown to reduce cardiac tissue injury in rats with diabetic  cardiomyopathy [25]. Similar to DNJ in mulberry extract, mango leaf extract also has the  capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase enzymes and decrease glucose absorption [26].  

Banana stem juice is traditionally used to prevent and treat kidney stones and diabetes. Recent  reports have confirmed such medicinal properties of banana stem juice extract, owing to its  rich content of antioxidant phytochemicals, such as chlorogenic acid and triterpenoids [27, 28].  For instance, banana stem juice extract has been shown to reduce postprandial glucose and  lipid levels, resulting in an improved diabetic condition in rats [29].

Therefore, GlucoTrojan® is formulated with three synergistic ingredients capable of improving  blood glucose response after meals, contributing to numerous health benefits down the line.  Research indicates that a minimal spike in postprandial blood glucose levels promotes satiety  and prevents ‘sugar crash’ and subsequent cravings, helping us to manage our waistline more  easily [30]. Healthier glucose response also prevents insulin resistance and even allows cells  to be re-sensitized to insulin, protecting against the development of diabetes and obesity [31].  

Moreover, enhanced insulin sensitivity is a prime indicator of overall health. As a result of  insulin resistance, unregulated surges in blood glucose catalyze the formation of advanced  glycation end-products (AGEs) – proteins or lipids that undergo glycation and oxidation in the  presence of excess sugar [32]. AGEs accumulation accelerates aging and other age-related  diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and cancer diseases [33].  

Ultimately, the mechanism of GlucoTrojan® in modulating blood glucose spikes after meals  protects against not only diabetes and obesity but a myriad of other diseases as well. Elevate  your pursuit of optimal health today by starting with GlucoTrojan®. Do not just aspire to live  healthier; actualize it with the proven benefits of GlucoTrojan®,

Reference list 

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